While overall college attendance fell between 2011 and 2012, a record 49% of Hispanic high school graduates aged 18-24 enrolled in college. There are now over 2.4 million Hispanic individuals in college, comprising over 16% of all students. According to data from the National Center for Education Statistics, the number of Hispanic graduates has also increased significantly since the turn of the century.
Hispanic graduates from higher education programs
Personal testimony of an undocumented college student
Shareny Diaz fought against the odds and attended college as an undocumented student. Read on to learn about her inspiring journey.
I am 26 years old and a beneficiary of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA). I was brought to this country by my parents at the age of two and have lived in the Bronx ever since. I attended The City College of New York as an undergraduate and graduated in 2011. I am currently pursuing a Master’s in Public Affairs at Baruch College, CUNY and I work at the Jaime Lucero Mexican Studies Institute at CUNY. The Institute promotes higher education within the Mexican community, fosters research pertaining to Mexico and Mexicans in the United States and collaborates with community-based organizations to support and empower New York’s Mexican community.
I was privileged to have the opportunity to attend college and graduate at a time before DACA existed. I was told many times that, because of my undocumented status, I wouldn’t be able to attend college. Under the guidance of a professor from NYU, I decided to apply to college anyway. Through her network, I received the information and tools I needed to apply as an undocumented student. I even received a partial scholarship that helped finance my first six semesters.
It was a hard journey to navigate the system as a first generation, undocumented student. I had to ask for help every step of the way and learn about my rights and the opportunities available to me. With the support of my parents, I was able to finance college and become the first in my family to earn a college degree. Reality struck at graduation, though: despite my degree, I couldn’t contribute to society, since I was undocumented and couldn’t legally work.
DACA was passed a year after I graduated, and it has completely changed my life. I now work at a place that provides guidance and financial support to students who, like me, are unable to receive state or federal aid to finance their educations. My job provides me with enormous satisfaction, knowing that my work will help students get through college with one fewer obstacle. With the scholarship opportunity offered by the Institute, our students are able to focus on their education and not worry about how to pay for next semester.
Preparing for College
Although 83% of Hispanic high school students want to attend college, a 2014 study by ACT found that less than 25% met three out of the four “ACT College Readiness Benchmarks.” By comparison, 39% of non-Hispanic students met that standard. Furthermore, only 62% of Hispanic students begin college in the fall after their high school graduation, compared to 71% of all graduates. Retention rates are also lower, with just 73% of students continuing into their sophomore year.
Several obstacles prevent Hispanic students from furthering their education. The following guide will help students prepare for college and learn about the resources and assistance that will help them realize their goals.
Financing an Education
One of the biggest hurdles Hispanic students face is paying for college. A 2011 report found that the average annual salaries for Hispanic workers were $29,692 and $26,936 for males and females, respectively. Conversely, the average salaries for white workers were $50,440 and $39,052.
Many Hispanic students live in low-income households, and most prospective applicants would be the first members of their family to attend college. These families are not only unfamiliar with the financial aid process, but must also find a way to pay for school without relying on federal financial aid.
Even in high school, students can access resources to reduce the financial burden of attending college. One of the best resources available is a fee waiver for college entrance examinations, including the SAT and ACT. Both standardized testing organizations want to eliminate educational barriers, and they waive 100% of fees for students who meet specific requirements. More information can be found on their websites:
- What is FAFSA? The Free Application for Federal Student Aid is a federal form that must be filled out by all college students hoping to receive financial aid. Although undocumented students aren’t eligible for funds at the federal level, they may be eligible for state-level funds, depending on where they live. For Hispanic U.S. citizens, students use their family’s financial information to see if they qualify for grants and loans.
- Any tips for filling it out? When filling out the FAFSA, undocumented students may be confused about a question that asks, “Are you a U.S. Citizen?” They should select the answer that states “No, I am not a citizen or eligible noncitizen,” because even if they have DACA, they are not eligible for federal funds.
- Pitfalls? There are a few things to watch out for regarding the FAFSA. One of the biggest is taking too long to fill out the form. Funds are awarded on a first-come, first-served basis, so students should be ready with all of their financial documents at the start of the year. For students with divorced parents, financial information must be based off the income of the parent with whom they live the majority of the time, whether or not this is their legal guardian.
Grants and Job opportunities
Hispanic students interested in changing the educational landscape for their communities can research and learn about educational policies, communication tactics and outreach programs focused on the Latino community through the White House’s Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics. The program allows undergraduate and graduate students to work alongside policy titans at the U.S. Department of Education while attending events on Capitol Hill, the White House, the Library of Congress and the Smithsonian.
Choosing a School
When selecting a school, many students are drawn toward colleges and universities that identify as Hispanic Serving Institutions, or HSIs. According to the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, more than 270 schools throughout the U.S bear this classification. To become an HSI, schools must have a minimum enrollment of 25% Hispanic students, including part and full-time, undergraduate and graduate. Once receiving HSI status, schools qualify for Title V and certain Title III grants to provide funding for their students. Other benefits include scholarships, paid internship opportunities, conferences, free travel and advocacy.
Best value HSI colleges
|School||Tuition & Fees||Location|
|Eastern New Mexico University||$4,558||Portales, NM|
|Texas A&M International University||$5,818||Laredo, TX|
|California State University – Monterey Bay||$5,963||Seaside, CA|
|CUNY City College||$6,089||New York, NY|
|CUNY Lehman College||$6,108||Bronx, NY|
|University of California – Fullerton||$6,186||Fullerton, CA|
|New Mexico State University||$6,220||Las Cruces, NM|
|Florida International University||$6,496||Miami, FL|
|San Diego State University||$6,766||San Diego, CA|
|University of New Mexico||$6,846||Albuquerque, NM|
|Adams State University||$7,449||Alamosa, CO|
|Texas State University||$8,060||San Marcos, TX|
|University of Houston||$8,401||Houston, TX|
|University of Texas – Austin||$9,798||Austin, TX|
|Boricua College||$11,025||New York, NY|
Immigration and Legal Status
The Educators for Fair Consideration report that there are more than 1.1 million undocumented children under the age of 18 currently living in the United States. While 73% of all Hispanic children from undocumented immigrant parents were born in America and are U.S. citizens, legal status remains a concern for some students.
All students—even undocumented—have the legal right to attend an American college or university. This status can detrimentally affect their financial aid options, however. Below, we’ve compiled information to help undocumented students from all backgrounds find the financial aid they need to get a college education.
Children of Migrant Workers
Children of migratory or seasonal workers are often anxious about how they will pay for college. The following resources will guide them towards scholarships, grants and other forms of financial aid.
- Office of Migrant Workers: The U.S. Department of Education (USDE) formed this office to help children of migrant workers gain access to scholarships, grants, financial and academic resources and information on their legal rights.
- College Assistance Migrant Program: Also administered by the USDE, CAMP specifically serves migratory and seasonal workers and their children as they enroll in their first year of postsecondary school. The funding available supports students by partnering with various nonprofits and institutions. Other services include counseling, tutoring, workshops, financial aid stipends, housing assistance and health services.
- Migrant Student Foundation: This nonprofit connects the children of migrant workers to scholarships, grants, internships and service learning opportunities.
- Genesco Migrant Center: Genesco provides an exhaustive list of state-based and national programs serving migrant education needs.
Regardless of their citizenship status, undocumented students have every right to attend an American college. Similar to other students, undocumented learners submit applications, gather letters of recommendation and compose thoughtful essays as they apply to school.
While all students should fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), undocumented students are ineligible for federal funds. They should still fill out the FAFSA, however, as several states and colleges offer their own financial packages but still need the information provided on the FAFSA to determine a student’s eligibility.
Since there isn’t a federal law mandating tuition for undocumented students, states make their own laws regarding whether undocumented students can receive in-state tuition or not. Prospective college students should research the laws in their state. While some allow these students to take advantage of in-state tuition—provided they attended high school there for at least two years—others have specific legislation prohibiting these fee structures from being extended to them.
Eighteen states have passed legislation similar to the DREAM Act as of late 2015. This means students who attend school elsewhere are expected to pay full tuition rates, regardless of how long they have lived in these states. States offering in-state tuition include:
- New Jersey
- New Mexico
- New York
- Rhode Island*
* These states allow in-state tuition rates at the discretion of the Board of Regents
- New Mexico
Looking to learn more? Check out these three resources for undocumented students:
- Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Also known as DACA, this exempts established undocumented students from deportation and allows them to work, provided that they meet a number of specific requirements.
- The DREAM Act: This piece of legislation, which has been moving through Congress in various forms since 2001, seeks to create more higher education opportunities for undocumented students.
- Educators for Fair Consideration: Undocumented students bound for college will find scholarships specifically catered to their demographic at EFC.
First Generation College Students
First generation Hispanic students often face obstacles when applying for and enrolling in college. A report by the Pell Institute found that only 11% of first generation students complete four-year degrees, while students in this demographic are twice as likely to drop out as those whose parents attended college. Explanations for why vary between students, but often revolve around finances and support from their families. The resources below offer students information on how to beat the odds and earn a degree.
- Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Many first generation college students of Hispanic descent arrived in America as young children and consider the U.S. their home. DACA provides work permits and deportation exemption for students who emigrated to the U.S. as children, provided that they meet certain conditions.
- I’m First: First generation students often feel overwhelmed with everything they have to learn about college. I’m First provides a network for these students to ask questions about their classes or any administrative, financial or legal concerns they may have.
- America Needs You: This New York-based nonprofit focuses on building economic stability for first generation college students through internships, intensive career development opportunities and mentorship programs.
- ACT – First Generation Student Guide: ACT offers advice for students and their families as they prepare to take the college entrance examination and attend school.
- Five Things Families of First Generation College Students Need to Know: This Huffington Post article makes excellent points about the types of support that students will need as they attend high school and college.
- MALDEF: Known as the Latino legal voice for civil rights in America, MALDEF provides insightful legal advice for Hispanic students.
- My Brother’s Keeper: An initiative created by the White House, My Brother’s Keeper ensures that all youths have access to opportunities allowing them to overcome barriers and improve their lives.
- Latino College Dollars: Provided by the Hispanic Scholarship fund, this helpful search engine allows students to find a variety of scholarships.
- Hispanic Association of Scholarships and Universities: A curated list of scholarships and grants open to Hispanic students in a range of degree programs.
- Hispanic Heritage: This nonprofit offers a database of scholarship information, available in both English and Spanish.
- National Association of Hispanic Nurses: For Latino students aspiring to be nurses.
- Association of Latino Professionals for America: ALPFA provides a number of resources for Hispanic students, including scholarships.
- LULAC National Educational Service Centers: Created by the League of United Latin American Citizens, this foundation provides multiple scholarship programs for Latino students at all educational levels.
- Adelante Fund: Part of the U.S. Education Leadership Fund, this foundation offers a variety of different scholarships to Hispanic students.